Anastasia Kitsantas and Angela D Miller—George Mason University
The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills of students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) Primary Years Programme (PYP), particularly in relation to the study of mathematics. The study also explored the extent to which teacher practices encouraged self-regulation and impacted student efficacy beliefs. The multi-phase study used interviews, classroom observation and surveys to explore issues of self-efficacy and self-regulation in PYP classrooms in the United States. Goal setting, monitoring, collaboration and reflection appeared to be beneficial self-regulatory practices that supported student learning. Additionally, findings showed that high achievers engaged in more strategic thinking before, during and after mathematical problem-solving tasks than average and low achievers. The authors conclude with a number of recommendations for teachers and schools to enhance student self-efficacy and self-regulation in the context of mathematics learning and instruction.