Singapore: alignment of the DP with the Singaporean GCE A Level

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This study evaluates the alignment between DP mathematics (analysis and approaches and applications and interpretation) and sciences (biology, chemistry and physics) compared with Singaporean GCE A Level (SGA) courses (Higher (H)1, H2 and H3 physics; H1, H2 and H3 chemistry; H1, H2 and H3 biology; H1 and H2 mathematics; H2 further mathematics (H2F); H3 mathematics). Overall, in terms of demand, DP SL mathematics and science courses substantially surpass SGA H1 courses; DP SL courses surpass or are similar to H2 courses; and DP HL courses surpass or are similar to H3 courses.

Specific findings

Learning outcomes

  • There is high alignment between all DP SL and HL mathematics and science subjects and SGA subjects.

Content alignment

  • Overall, H1 mathematics has more overlap with DP SL courses, although the former has less content than the latter. H2 mathematics has greater overlap with DP HL courses. H2F and H3 go beyond the scope of DP mathematics courses.
  • For the science subjects, there is considerable overlap between DP physics and chemistry courses and their SGA equivalents, while there is moderate overlap between DP and SGA biology.


  • DP SL and HL mathematics courses substantially surpass H1 mathematics. H2 mathematics is more comparable in demand to DP SL courses, although it scores similarly to DP HL courses for depth of knowledge. H2F and H3 mathematics demand scores are very comparable to DP HL subjects.
  • For all SGA science subjects, SL courses substantially surpass H1 courses, while DP SL and HL surpass H2 and H3 courses, respectively.

Full report (PDF, 3.3 MB)