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- PYP and MYP Student Performance on the International Schools’ Assessment: Phase II 2010-2011 (in progress)
- Evaluation of International Baccalaureate Programs in Texas Schools (2010)
- PYP and MYP Student Performance on the International Schools’ Assessment (2010)
- Student Engagement, School Climate, and Student Performance in the Middle Years Programme (in progress)
- To be IB: Creating Support Structures and Services for Title I High Schools Implementing the International Baccalaureate Programme (2010)
- High School Student Engagement Among IB and Non-IB Students in the United States: A Comparison Study (2009)
- Supplemental Survey: Creating Support Structures and Services for Title I High Schools Implementing the International Baccalaureate Programme (2008)
- The District Role in International Baccalaureate (2008)
- IB Students’ High School and Postsecondary Experiences in Chicago Public Schools (in progress)
- International Baccalaureate Students studying at UK Higher Education Institutions: How do they fare? (2011)
- Postsecondary Enrollment Patterns of IB Certificate and Diploma Candidates from International High Schools (2011)
- Postsecondary Enrollment Patterns of IB Certificate and Diploma Candidates from US High Schools (2011)
- First College Courses Taken by Florida IB Students (2011)
- Academic Performance of IB students Entering the University of California System From 2000-2002 (2010)
- International Baccalaureate Standards Development and Alignment Project (2009)
- Case Studies of Participation and Performance in the IB Diploma Programme (2008)
- Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Among Australian and New Zealand Universities (2007)
- School-University Transition Project (2005)
- Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: A Report of an Inquiry Carried Out in 2003 at UK Universities and Institutions of Higher Education (2003)
PYP/MYP/DP or Continuum Studies
A Longitudinal Study of International Baccalaureate Students’ Postsecondary Educational Access, Performance, and Persistence
In conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania, and with funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, this research examines the relationships between participation in the IB DP and a range of college-related outcomes. By combining data from the IB, the Florida K-20 Education Data Warehouse (EDW), and the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC), we can produce a comprehensive picture of the relationship between participation in the IB and postsecondary trajectories. Data analysis includes multiple approaches to adjusting for selection bias.
|PYP/MYP||PYP and MYP Student Performance on the International Schools’ Assessment: Phase II 2010-2011||
In 2009 IB commissioned ACER (Australian Council for Educational Research) to report on how PYP and MYP students performed on the ISA (International Schools’ Assessment). The ISA assesses performance in Grades 3 to 10 on math, reading, and writing. Please see the results of this study below. As a follow up to this study, IB has again partnered with ACER to further document student performance on the ISA as well as investigate perceptions, attitudes and wellbeing of IB students.
Student Engagement, School Climate, and Student Performance in the Middle Years Programme
This study focuses on MYP in a large public urban district' and aims to understand the relationship between middle school students’ perceptions of school climate and student engagement and their academic performance. Anticipated completion date is early 2011.
IB Students’ High School and Postsecondary Experiences in Chicago Public Schools
Led by the Consortium for Chicago School Research, this mixed methods study seeks to closely examine the high school and postsecondary experiences of DP students in Chicago Public Schools (CPS). The study will investigate the extent to which DP is associated with college retention and whether the DP offers positive learning environments for the students they serve. Anticipated completion date is early 2011.
Analysis of CEM Assessment Data: A Comparison of IB and Non-IB Students and Schools
IB is working with University of Durham to compare the attainment, progress and attitudes of students in IB and non-IB schools using a range of CEM (Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring) data collected in the 2009/10 academic year. CEM uses results from PIPS, InCAS, CABT, Yellis, and GCSE to investigate student performance and attributes.
International Baccalaureate Students studying at UK Higher Education Institutions: How do they fare?
Analytical Services Team, Higher Education Statistics Agency, UK
This report sources data from the International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) on students studying at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the UK. The report identifies characteristics and trends of IB students compared with students holding the more traditional A level and similar qualifications. Data has been restricted to full-time first degree students attending, qualifying or leaving HEIs in the UK in the academic year 2008/09 with some comparisons with 2007/08. The report provides an overview of IB student characteristics and analysis of enrolment patterns at the ‘top’ HEIs, chosen fields of study, achievement and non-continuation rates, as well as activities approximately six months after leaving HEIs. Findings indicate that IB entrants were more likely to be enrolled at a top 20 HEI, and 91% of IB entrants holding 44-45 exam points attended a top 20 HEI. IB students were, in most subject areas, also more likely to achieve first class honours and to leave with an award. After university, IB students were more likely to go onto further study, and more likely to be employed in graduate level jobs and in higher paid occupations.
Postsecondary Enrollment Patterns of IB Certificate and Diploma Candidates from US High Schools
Kyra Caspary, Center for Education Policy, SRI International
To better understand the postsecondary destinations and outcomes of IB students, this study combines data from multiple sources including the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC), the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), the Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education, and International Baccalaureate. It tracks enrollment and graduation rates from U.S. postsecondary institutions for two cohorts of IB students who completed high school in the United States in 2000 and 2001. The majority of these students enrolled full time directly in a 4-year institution (67.1%) rather than a 2-year college (3.8%), and 64.4% enrolled directly into institutions classified as somewhat selective or more selective. Diploma candidates were more likely than certificate candidates to attend more selective institutions. At institutions with high IB enrollments, graduation rates for IB students were generally higher than the institutional average. Overall, 81% of IB students graduated within 6 years of enrolling full-time at a 4-year institution, compared to the national average of 57%.
Postsecondary Enrollment Patterns of IB Certificate and Diploma Candidates from International High Schools
Kyra Caspary, Center for Education Policy, SRI International
To better understand the postsecondary destinations and outcomes of IB students, this study combines data from multiple sources including the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC), the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), the Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education and International Baccalaureate. It tracks the enrollment and graduation rates of two cohorts of IB students who attended IB World Schools outside of the United States in 2001 and 2002, and went on to study at postsecondary institutions in the U.S. Overall this was a very high achieving group, taking an average of 5.2 exams, and with 60% scoring a 6 or higher on at least 3 exams. 84% of students who came to study in the U.S. enrolled full-time directly in a 4-year institution, and 68% of these enrolled in a more selective institution. The top four destinations were University of Pennsylvania, Colby College, Harvard, and NYU. Of students that enrolled full-time at a 4-year college, 69% graduated within 4 years, and 84% within 6 years. These percentages were even higher for Diploma holders.
First College Courses Taken by Florida IB Students
Kyra Caspary, Center for Education Policy, SRI International
To examine the relationship between performance on IB exams and college course performance in the same subjects, this study used data for 4,845 IB students from Florida who graduated from high school between 2000 and 2005 and entered the University of Florida the next fall. Florida was chosen because of the state's heavy participation in IB programmes and comprehensive data collection efforts. This analysis focused on seven subjects: physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, English, Spanish, and French. Analyses reveal a positive association between students’ scores on a given IB subject exam and students’ grades in their first college courses in that subject. Overall, 59% of students who scored a 6 or 7 on an IB exam in a given subject earned an A in their first college course in that subject compared to 39% who scored a 4 or 5, and 22% who scored below a 4. In the 3 sciences and Spanish, the highest-frequency first course was the same for students who took HL or SL exams; in mathematics, English and French, the highest-frequency first course differed by IB exam level. In general, the first college course taken varied more by exam performance than by level of exam taken, with higher scoring students taking more advanced classes.
Evaluation of International Baccalaureate Programs in Texas Schools
Jacqueline R. Stillisano et. al., State of Texas Education Research Center at Texas A&M University
This study examines the impact of the PYP and MYP in Texas classrooms. No significant differences were found between IB schools and their comparison schools in math and reading achievement as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. However, structured classroom observations indicated that favorable instructional practices and student behaviors and activities occurred more frequently in IB classrooms than in non-IB Texas classrooms. Researchers concluded that while this is suggestive that the overall quality of instruction is higher at IB schools, implementation varied from school to school, and some of the favorable instructional practices are used more often in some IB schools than in others. Positive outcomes of the IB as identified by teachers and administrators in case studies included increased teacher collaboration, authentic assessment, increased student motivation for learning, development of critical thinking skills, and increased student global and cultural awareness. Challenges identified by teachers and administrators included staff recruitment and retention, balancing the IB with state and district requirements, the additional time needed for collaborative lesson planning and paperwork, the difficulty and workload for students, student mobility, and lack of support from districts parents or teachers .
To be IB: Creating Support Structures and Services for Title I High Schools Implementing the International Baccalaureate Programme
Leslie Siskin, Meryle Weinstein & Robyn Sperling, Institute for Education and Social Policy, New York University
This study evaluated a grant funded project to design, develop and deliver new support structures and services that would improve access to the IB Diploma Programme in Title 1 eligible schools. The study examined the experience of four pilot sites that implemented MYP to DP pathways in their middle and high schools, and tested and gave feedback on the new supports. The study found that schools’ challenges included 1) building an MYP pathway across middle and high schools in different buildings with different organizations, 2) meshing the MYP and DP philosophies and pedagogies, 3) getting past preconceived notions of IB as a selective honors programme, 4) funding DP exams and fees, 5) the pressure to focus time, attention and resources on state exams and expectations at the expense of the IB, 6) developing safety net supports for students who needed additional motivation and academic preparation, and 7) high principal and teacher turnover. The most successful support service was facilitating access to IB professional development, including on- and off-site workshops. Guidance counselor training and involvement was particularly important to expanding access to IB and to the college admissions process. Participation in the grant itself, with direct support and advocacy from the IB regional office and access to the network of peer schools was also key. The effects of on-site coaching were mixed, but most effective when coaches had both expertise in IB and experience in urban schools. Professional Learning Groups, adopted with assistance from the coaches, were useful in making meetings more productive, in spreading IB to more staff, and in distributing leadership more widely. The study noted while schools saw progress in expanding enrollment, implementing organizational change, and increasing test scores, a fully constructed MYP to DP pipline would take at least 6 years to take the first cohort of students through the diploma. In keeping with this, only the school that had the fully functioning pipeline by the end of the study showed a strong pattern of increase in diplomas awarded.
A Study of Successful Practices in the IB Continuum
Philip Hallinger, Allan Walker & Moosung Lee, Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd)
In this study, the Hong Kong Institute for Education illuminates key strategies and practices that promote successful programme implementation and transition within full continuum IB schools. The mixed methods study analysed data from a global survey of 235 IB coordinators and case studies of five full continuum schools in the Asia-Pacific region. The study found that schools employed leadership practices and management strategies to address issues and challenges emerging from programme transitions. Commonly and saliently identified leadership practices and management strategies included 1) various strategies for the purpose of articulation, 2) cross-programme interaction, and 3) strategic staffing. Among the three major leadership and management strategies, articulation promoted a better transition through building consistency and coherence between programs. Consistency between programmes in terms of teaching, learning, and assessment was critical to a smooth transition. In a similar vein, coherence of curriculum between programmes was another key pillar for a smooth transition. Finally, support for students was also directly associated with better program transitions.
PYP and MYP Student Performance on the International Schools’ Assessment
Ling Tan & Yan Bibby, Australian Council for Educational Research
This study, undertaken by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER), investigated how International Baccalaureate (IB) students enrolled in the Primary Years Programme (PYP) and Middle Years Programme (MYP) performed on the International Schools’ Assessment (ISA), relative to non-IB students. The ISA assesses student performance in Grades 3 to 10 across four domains: Math Literacy, Reading, Narrative Writing, and Expository Writing. The math and reading components of the assessment are based on the reading and mathematical literacy frameworks of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The study sample included IB students (N=23,575) and non-IB students (N=14,317) across Asia and Oceania, Europe, Africa and the Americas, who participated in the ISA in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. On the whole, despite some regional differences, the results indicate that IB PYP and MYP students outperformed their non-IB peers on the ISA across all four domains in a majority of grade levels, with the strongest effects noted in Year 10 Math and Expository Writing. IB students’ ISA scores in Grades 9 and 10 also compare very favourably to PISA benchmarks in Math and Reading. On the other hand, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that IB schools authorized for a longer period produce better student outcomes, and no clear patterns were noted in student performance across IB full continuum schools and single or dual programme schools.
Academic Performance of IB Students Entering the University of California System from 2000-2002
International Baccalaureate Global Policy and Research (based on data provided by the University of California President's Office )
This report documents the college performance of 1,547 U.S. high school students who participated in the International Baccalaureate (IB) programme and subsequently enrolled in the University of California (UC) system between 2000 and 2002. Performance of IB students is compared to the UC population at large, as well as a comparison group of 5,253 non-IB students matched on year of enrollment, race/ethnicity, family income (within a range of +/- $10,000), and high school academic performance (formula using high school GPA and highest SAT or ACT score). Descriptive analyses indicate that students participating in the IB earned higher grade point averages and graduated at higher rates than comparison group students as well as students in the University of California system overall. This trend was observed across all income groups. In addition, regression analyses, controlling for socio-economic status, high school GPA, and SAT/ACT scores, demonstrated a positive relationship between indicators of high school IB participation and performance and college performance. Performance in the Diploma Programme was the best predictor of college performance, accounting for around 25% of the variance (depending on the specific model). Among subject group exams, scores on the experimental sciences IB exams were the best predictors of college GPA, explaining around 17% of the variance. The data show that IB students in the UC system tend to perform better than a matched comparison group and students overall, and that performance in the IB programme in high school significantly predicts achievement in college.
High School Student Engagement Among IB and Non-IB Students in the United States: A Comparison Study
International Baccalaureate Global Policy and Research in collaboration with The Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana University
In 2009, the IB recruited eight schools to participate in the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE). The HSSSE is a national survey measuring the academic, social, and emotional engagement of high school students. Two broad sets of analyses were conducted – the first compared non-IB students and IB students in the targeted sample of eight schools (n=7,692), and the second compared non-IB students and IB students in a national sample of more than 100 schools (n=42,754). In both sets of comparisons, IB students rated their levels of academic, behavioral, and emotional engagement significantly higher than non-IB students.
The Primary Years Programme Field Study
Jori Hall, Tracy Elder, et. al., Education Policy and Evaluation Center, University of Georgia
This investigation of the authorization and implementation process of the IB Primary Years Programme (PYP) in Georgia schools, which combines an online survey with in-depth case studies, was conducted to provide insights that might improve the IB’s work and guide the efforts of schools seeking to offer the PYP. With regard to how schools move from interested to candidate to authorized PYP status, it was found that district-level support was important and that schools strengthened teacher and parent buy-in by networking with other IB schools, sending teachers to IB workshops, and meeting with various stakeholder groups. With regard to PYP implementation, this study identifies six successful strategies: whole-school immersion, collaborative planning, continuous training, availability of resources, strategies to promote community involvement, and support from the school leadership. Challenges for implementation were limited resources, integration of state standards with the PYP curriculum, the transdisciplinary nature of the programme, and district and state expectations. Recommendations from schools for improving IB support, particularly during the authorization process, include systematic networking with authorized schools, additional consultative support, more training for special area teachers, and better communication regarding feedback on applications and notification of the outcome of authorization visits.
International Baccalaureate Standards Development and Alignment Project
David Conley & Terri Ward, Educational Policy Improvement Center, University of Oregon
This study, which analyzes the alignment of the IB Diploma Programme standards and the Knowledge and Skills for University Success (KSUS) college-ready standards, found IB standards to be highly aligned with the KSUS standards. In particular, the key cognitive strategies emphasized in the Diploma—critical thinking skills, intellectual inquisitiveness and interpretation—were found to be fully aligned with the expectations of university faculty. The study also confirmed that IB Diploma Programme standards demonstrate a very high degree of alignment with the KSUS standards in all subject areas. In math, complete alignment was found between the IB Diploma’s mathematical studies and the KSUS’ algebra, trigonometry and statistics standards. In science, the 47 IB chemistry standards, 19 biology standards and the concepts of environmental science embedded in all three IB science courses aligned completely with KSUS.
Research summary (also available on EPIC website)
Case Studies of Participation and Performance in the IB Diploma Programme
Jennifer A. Bland & Katrina R. Woodworth, SRI
This report analyzes the experience of two U.S. schools that have been particularly successful in recruiting low-income and minority students to the IB Diploma Programme (DP) and in ensuring their success. It discusses the DP’s history, structure, and availability at each school; students’ preparation, recruitment, selection, enrollment, persistence, and achievement in each case; and school-level, district, and state supports that appear to facilitate successful outcomes for DP students. Recommendations stemming from these case studies include structuring IB programmes as magnets that target underrepresented groups in diverse school districts, aligning schools’ 9th and 10th grade curriculum with the IB to provide early preparation for the DP, developing recruitment strategies that specifically target underrepresented applicants, evaluating schools’ capacity to adequately support struggling students if they decide to expand access, carefully monitoring students’ progress, and ensuring adequate district-level support. Efforts should also be made to share best practices among district leaders and to continue to advocate in favor of state-wide policies that foster broader IB participation.
Supplemental Survey: Creating Support Structures and Services for Title I High Schools Implementing the International Baccalaureate Programme
Leslie Siskin & Meryle Weinstein, Institute for Education and Social Policy, New York University
A survey of the Middle Years Programmes (MYP) and the Diploma Programmes (DP) at U.S. schools eligible for federal “Title I” aid was conducted as part of an evaluation of the IB’s attempts to increase access to the DP by providing greater support to these schools. The survey sheds light on the nature of IB student enrollment at Title I schools, with participation in the MYP showing broader access than in the DP, where schools often have selection criteria in place. The profile of IB coordinators and teachers at these schools is also described, as are various supports available to IB students. Challenges to IB implementation at these schools include resources, time and the difficulty of coordinating professional development between their district and the IB. In addition, motivation, academic preparation, and competing activities all impact students’ participation and success in IB. Schools stress the need for more support that will address their specific concerns as diverse, urban schools. Strengthening the pathway between the MYP and the DP may provide important support, but that pathway is still under construction, and is particularly challenging for Title I schools given their context.
The District Role in International Baccalaureate
Leslie Siskin & Meryle Weinstein, Institute for Education and Social Policy, New York University
In order to provide insights into the nature of the district’s role in adopting and implementing the IB, the evolution of that role, and whether increased involvement can ultimately benefit students and schools, this study analyzes one site where the district has played a key role in the successful expansion of IB programmes. In this large and extremely diverse district with a reputation for academic excellence, the IB has evolved from two “stand-alone” programmes to a cohesive set of programmes governed and administered with active district strategies, policies, and personnel. District support for the IB initially combined solid financial backing for the Diploma Programme (DP) with a flexible stance which did not mandate the programme. The district took on a more active role when the Middle Years Programme (MYP) was introduced, by building formal mechanisms to connect those involved with IB across schools, taking advantage of economies of scale, and creating two director-level positions to coordinate IB, among other measures. The relationship between this district and the IB has become so strong that the district’s new set of goals for all students mirror the goals and philosophy of IB programs. There is evidence to show that when the district takes on an active role in this way, student IB participation and performance increases, schools benefit, and the district itself is also strengthened. The district indicated that scores have risen particularly rapidly on state assessments and SATs in IB schools.
Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme among Australian and New Zealand Universities
Hamish Coates, Chris Rosicka & Marita MacMahon-Ball, Australian Council for Educational Research
The IB commissioned the Australian Council for Educational Research to undertake a study of University perceptions of the IB. Administrators from 40 Australian and 7 New Zealand universities were surveyed, with a response rate of 24.7%. The survey was followed by in-depth telephone interviews with select respondents. Asked to rate aspects of the IB on a scale of very low to very high (assigned values of 1 to 5), creativity, action, service (CAS) and theory of knowledge (TOK) had an average response of 3.3., the extended essay an average of 3.6, the two- year span of the course of study 3.4, the broad curriculum with six subject areas 3.9, the range of assessment strategies 3.9, and studying at least three subjects in depth 4.0. More than three-fourths of the 159 respondents felt the IB Diploma prepared students well for university while the remaining 23% responded that they did not know enough about the programme to be sure. Of 107 comments in response to an open ended question asking whether the IB prepared students in advantageous ways for success at university, 70% responded positively. Most of the advantages described could be categorized broadly as indicating that participating in the IB enhanced students’ academic competence and capability. In-depth interviews indicated that IB graduates were seen as academically independent and mature. A reccurring theme in interviews was recognition of the fact that an IB education is good preparation for an internationalized university experience. Interviews also indicated strong support for the extended essay and the TOK course. There was some perception that the IB is “elitist” and correspondingly, that academically capable students self-selected into the IB programme and therefore that benefits of the programme could not be separated from attributes of the students.
School-University Transition Project
IB Research Unit at the University of Bath (the IB Research Unit at Bath was closed in 2008)
From 2003-2005, the IB Research Unit at the University of Bath attempted to ascertain how academic performance in the IB Diploma Programme relates to university performance and whether university students with IB degrees display the values associated with international-mindedness. Results showed there was little difference in dropout rates between IB diploma holders and non-IB students but that IB students were less likely to drop out for academic reasons and were more likely to transfer than to drop out completely. In the IB Latin America region, IB graduates received better university grades and a positive correlation was found between IB grades and university grades. Students surveyed felt academically prepared for university studies; however, while they felt creativity, action, service (CAS) prepared them to develop an appreciation for community service, they did not feel it prepared them in terms of the arts or sports. In comparing IB students from IB World Schools to non-IB students (most of whom were also from IB World Schools) in terms of their international values, only in questions related to “challenge” (prepared to change their opinion when challenged, prepared to challenge others views, prepared to compromise their own views) did IB students rate themselves significantly higher than non-IB students.
Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: A Report of an Inquiry Carried Out in 2003 at UK Universities and Institutions of Higher Education
Colin Jenkins (formerly Deputy Director General IBO, Principal of United World College of the Atlantic, Head of College United World College of South East Asia Singapore)
In 2003, Colin Jenkins carried out a study surveying UK institutions of higher education. Surveys were completed by 122 respondents from 71 universities, and in-depth follow-up interviews were conducted with 34 respondents from 20 of these universities. 96% of respondents appreciated broad curricula and liked this aspect of the IB, 91% approved of theory of knowledge (TOK), and 70% approved of creativity, action, service (CAS). 57% of respondents believed that participation in the IB Diploma Programme give incoming students an advantage and 40% felt it conferred neither an advantage nor a disadvantage. When asked to compare IB to A-Levels in the areas of critical thinking, communication, self management, and motivation a majority of the 78 respondents who answered the question rated the IB Diploma Programme higher than A-Levels in these areas.
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